Friday, 6 June 2008

internuclear ophthalmoplagia

click on the image to enlarge.

what are the causes of INO?
how would you investigate?


  1. multiple sclerosis

  2. multiple sclerosis is just one of the possible causes of internuclear opthalmoplegia, other causes include vascular(stroke), connective tissue disorder(SLE), mitotic lesion, drug induced(phenytoin, amitryptylline) and Wernicke's encephalopathy secondary to thiamine deficiency. In PACES, the examiners are looking for the candidate to be able to consider other differential diagnosis as well